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Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc.

4

Chapter II:

Scrap Recycling Overview

Refining

Crude oil is refined through a

complex distillation process where

chemicals with varying properties

are extracted and separated to create

products such as kerosene, gasoline,

naphtha, paraffin, and asphalt.

Forestry

Trees, and other fibrous plants, provide the basic raw

material that is processed into paper. It is important

to note that paper is a byproduct of deforestation. As

trees are processed for lumber and fuel, the chips and

sawdust are collected for pulping, which is about 15

percent of the total volume of trees cut down.

Pulping

Sawdust, wood chips, and other fibrous media are

mechanically or chemically broken down in order to

separate the fibers into a pulp. Mechanical pulping

requires more energy than chemical pulping but

produces higher yields. However, the paper strength

from chemical pulping is higher.

Mining

Ore is mined from mineral rich

deposits. Hematite, Bauxite,

Chalcocite, Limonite, and

Galena are examples of ores

used to extract base metals.

Beneficiation

Beneficiation is a process

where ores are crushed

and sorted to concentrate

pieces that will have

higher yields when

refined through smelting.

Drilling

Crude oil and natural gas are extracted

from deposits beneath the ground surface

and seabeds. Oil tanker ships are some of

the largest ships on the open seas. They’re

often as long as the World Trade Center is

tall and several times wider.

Recycling is an

important stage of the

manufacturing process. A

robust recycling system

is a healthy sign that

markets are working

efficiently. Responsibly

maximizing the value

extracted from natural

resources saves energy,

protects ecosystems, and

maintains the economic

freedom and security of a

nation. But it's important

to understand how these

materials are initially

created from our

natural resources.

Commodity Origins

Metals

Plastics

Paper